Laman utama A.A.V. Newsletter In My Experience

In My Experience

Sukakah Anda buku ini?
Bagaimana kualitas file yang diunduh?
Unduh buku untuk menilai kualitasnya
Bagaimana kualitas file yang diunduh?
Jilid:
2
Bahasa:
english
Majalah:
A.A.V. Newsletter
DOI:
10.2307/25630325
Date:
June, 1981
File:
PDF, 1.38 MB
Conversion to is in progress
Conversion to is failed
0 comments
 

Untuk memposting ulasan, silakan asuk atau mendaftar
Anda dapat meninggalkan komentar Anda tentang buku dan berbagi pengalaman Anda. Pembaca lain tertarik untuk mengetahui pendapat Anda tentang buku yang telah Anda baca. Terlepas Anda suka atau tidak buku itu, jika Anda menceritakan secara jujur dan mendetil, orang dapat menemukan buku baru buat diri mereka, buku yang sesuai dengan minatnya.
1

Back Matter

Tahun:
1981
Bahasa:
english
File:
PDF, 317 KB
2

FDA Surveillance

Tahun:
1981
Bahasa:
english
File:
PDF, 245 KB
Association of Avian Veterinarians

In My Experience
Source: A.A.V. Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Jun., 1981), pp. 5-16
Published by: Association of Avian Veterinarians
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25630325 .
Accessed: 17/06/2014 15:02
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .
http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of
content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms
of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

.

Association of Avian Veterinarians is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to
A.A.V. Newsletter.

http://www.jstor.org

This content downloaded from 91.229.229.177 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 15:02:29 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IN MY EXPERIENCE.

IME 38

QUESTIONS ASKED OF DR. SUSAN CLUBB DURING THE AVIAN

EDUCATIONAL
(To
in

our
the

MEETING

IN ATLANTA

Dr.
Clubb
knowledge,
full
country
employed

(A.A.H.A.)

is the only veterinarian
time by an importer.)

WHAT IS YOUR RECOMMENDEDTREATMENTFOR "COLDS" IN AMAZONS?
DR. CLUBB:
Ideally,
to the initiation
prior

bacterial
and
of therapy.

should
cultures
fungal
antibiotic
initial
My

be started
of choice

for systemic therapy is tylosin
(5 mg for a
(Tylan 50 by Elanco)
IM
bird
oid
for
100
300-500 gm
5-7 days).
(Vit. A and Do)
Injacom

is given
at the rate
.1 cc once weekly
of
for a 300-500
by Roche
gm
bird.
be opened
Nares
if obstructed
should
and flushed
with
daily
a mixture
of saline
and an antibiotic
(as determined
by sensitivity).
A syringe
over the nostril
needle
is held
and 1 to
without
tightly
1 1/2 cc of solution
is rapidly
flushed
Gentocin
through.
ophthalmic
solution
into
of birds
the nostrils
which
may be dropped
(Schering)
or
cases.
will
not tolerate
in
mil; d
Nebulization
therapy
flushing,
is helpful
in many cases.

HOWDO YOU TREAT EXTERNAL PARASITES?
DR. CLUBB:
for external
I routinely
dust flocks
with 5$
parasites
a
are
dusted
Sevin
from
duster.
Birds
Dust
garden
using
(Carbaryl)
to
down onto the back.
recent
settles
below
and the dust
According
Sevin
Dust may be carcinogenic.
reports
are effective
the wings
however
lice,
sprays
Pyrethrum
against
area
"No Pest
must be spread
and the axillary
sprayed.
thoroughly
are
of
mites.
must be
red
for
the
control
effective
Strips
Strips"
not hang over food and water
and should
from chewing
birds
protected
bowls.

DO YOU SEE DIARRHEA ASSOCIATED WITH GENTOCIN THERAPY?
is
with gentamycin
CLUBB:
The "diarrhea"
associated
therapy
an
in
Acid
causes
Uric
increase
transport
polyuria.
Gentamycin
usually
seen
in birds.
in reptiles
be responsible
for the polyuria
and may also
in Serum Uric
levels
an increase
Acid
which
Dr. Robert
Altman reports
levels
of
These
on
to
the
4th
3rd
therapy.
usually
day
usually
begins
of therapy.
to normal
after
cessation
do not exceed
20 mg/dl and return
be available
on this
will
more precise
information
subject
Hopefully
DR.

soon.

HOWDO YOU FEEL ABOUT LACTOBACILLUS AFTER ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY?
is helpful
in birds
DR. CLUBB:
I believe
lactobacillus
therapy
of normal
the full
flora
antibiotic
spectrum
Although
therapy.
needed
bacteria
these
give
competition
gram
positive
replaced,
and fungi.
bacteria
of gram negative
overgrowth

following
is not
to the

WHATHAVE YOU FOUND TO BE SUCCESSFUL IN TREATING POX?
DR.

CLUBB:

5 days
weeks.

1.

2.

Injacom

Tylosin

on and 2 days
Lactobacillus

100

-

.lcc

/

300-500

and gentamycin

gm bird

once

weekly.

5 nig each oid/ 500 gm, given

for
off.
Antibiotic
may be necessary
therapy
on 2 days off and after
is provided
recovery.

This content downloaded from 91.229.229.177 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 15:02:29 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

2-3

are vashed with Mercurichrome
(1 part
eye wash
3.
Eyes
followed
and 4 parts
mercurichrome
eye wash solution)
by chloramphenicol
axe present
If scabs
solution.
the eye must be opened
just
ophthalmic
caseous
cornea.
material
to
the
to
White
medication
enough
apply
collects
must be removed
which
under
the lids
daily.
sinusitis.
4.
with
in birds
is required
Nasal
flushing
tube
be
offered
Soft
and
foods
should
may
5feeding
be required.
6.
may be needed.
therapy
Antifungal

WHAT IS YOUR RECOMMENDEDTHERAPY FOR CANDIDIASIS?
on contact
CLUBB:
1.
works
Oral
(Mycostatin
Suspension)
Nystatin
I use 1 cc per os/500
is more effective
often.
if given
gm bird
be added
to water
for more continuous
therapy.
may also
Mycostatin
feed
is
2.
20
difficult
(Nystatin
premix)
Mycostatin
or water
to add to seeds
It may
base.
due to the diatomaceous
earth
be used with
foods.
soft
can be used
as a flock
Chlorhexadine
3.
(Nolvasan)
I use
treatment.
of
and
well
at this
it
water
is
accepted
lOcc/gallon

DR,
and
bid.

concentration.

axe helpful
4.
A and lactobacillus
Levamisole,Vitamin
therapy.
a 10% solu
with
Oral
to swabbing
lesions
may respond
5.
tion
Iodine
of Lugols
solution.
cases
to Amphoteracin
Cream
6.
may respond
Refractory
or Methylene
to oral
lesions.
Blue
(Fulvicin)
applied
corn or other
in soaked
7. Calcium
may be used
proprionate
of feed).
lbs
feeds
to prevent
moist
(1 gram/50
overgrowth
fungal
adjuncts

to

******************

we are aiming
for regional
for
with this
issue,
input
Starting
. " Members
"In My Experience.
of
the bulk
under
of the articles
Associa
the Avian
Medical
the
of
Southern
California
Veterinary
Society
and
Susan
Richard
tion
Yanoff,
Chr.,
Jr.,
Woerpel,
(Walter
Rosskopf,
The
issue.
for
this
the
Keven
Flammer)
Chicago
accepted
responsibility
to contribute
area veterinarians
to
have
offered
(Ted Lafeber,
Chr.)
Northern
the Sept.
the
California
Schuchman,
issue,
(Steve
group
I98I
in the Northeast
take Dec.
and veterinarians
will
1981,
part
Chr.)
to the March,
will
contribute
of the country
1982
Chr.)
(Bob Altman,
we will
from other
to accept
items
continue
Of course,
Newsletter.
of reading
will
make sure
there's
but these
members,
plenty
groups
we may be able
to publish
of enthusiasm,
kind
With this
material.
more often!

IME 39
(Introduction

HEMOGRAMSOF FOUR INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CALIFORNIA
edited

SEEN IN SOUTHERN

for

length)
our three
veterin
Reference
Laboratory,
Working with Veterinary
a
in
2 1/2 year
has done over 10,000
arian
work-ups
hematolgic
practice
on
for
avian
normals
all
our data
We are compiling
(mostly
period.
more
blood
with
become
familiar
we
have
As
panels,
species.
psittacine)
a typical
often
have
we see that
conditions
certain
hemogram.

This content downloaded from 91.229.229.177 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 15:02:29 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

INCLUSION BODY HEPATITIS
common in our birds
is extremely
here.
This
disease
Hematologically,
it is undistinguishable
is especi
The disease
from Pacheco's
disease.
common in cockatoos
in the majority
to be,
and cockatiels
and seems
ally
of cases,
to be recurrent
some of the cockatoos
in nature.
Also,
as
a
a
adrenal
result
of
attacks,
develop
repeated
insufficiency
we have been able
condition
in depth.
to study
The main clinical
are low white
counts
with
pathology
findings
relative
one
and
If
SGOT
follows
increased
LDH.
and
lymphocytosis
the disease
and serially
the blood
the white
count
counts,
repeats
and liver
to
become
often
return
abnormal
will
to
normal
enzymes
only
at some future
can go on like
date.
for years.
birds
These
this
Cocka
tiels
follow
can
the same pattern
months
last
in an abnormal
for
which
state.

FIGURE 1:

OF MEDIUM SULFUR CRESTED COCKATOOWITH CHRONIC
HEMOGRAM
INCLUSION BODY HEPATITIS

10/15/79 2/21/80 3/13/80 3/17/80 3/20/80 4/21/80 8/15/80 9/27/80

WBC
2,400
43

Heterophils

11,500
28

69

Lymphocytes 50
Monocytes
Eosinophils

Basophils
Blood

03

*

Parasites
RBC

?

PCV
Platelets

7
0

2
0

0

1

NPS

NPS

2.3

2.3

40

33
normal

normal

<1,000
06

<1,000
w2

ra?-5
Erol

jjj^

ohm?

G3

4,000
23

0

0

NPS

NPS

NPS

NPS

NPS

NPS

2.7

2.0

32

45

44

44

normal

normal

normal

41

32
normal

normal

normal

248
124

202
212

LDH
254

90
690

334

192
250176
424
652

818
<0.2
12.3
12.4

4.2

2.7

3-2

134

448

578
<0.2
9-5
12.4

2

1^4

Glucose
SGOT

1.3

70

1

4.4

T-4

0

4,000
28

?8

hO

4.1

5.0
13-4

??l0

?S?

3.4

<0.2
5-1
9.2

21

0

0

4.4

0.2

<1,000
3 11

52

76

Tot.Protein

Creatinine
Uric Acid
Calcium

3,000
19

>800

5.6

0.8

Baseline

Cortisol

<0.1

ACTH Cortisol

30 min. < 0.1
ACTH Cortisol
(1 hr.)
ACTH Cortisol
(90 Mins.) <0.1
Stim.

= less

<0.1

than

NPS

= No
parasites

seen

>

This content downloaded from 91.229.229.177 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 15:02:29 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

=

greater

than

our efforts
and endocrine
Despite
was Inclusion
12-6-80.
Final
diagnosis
Cellular
Cortical
Note
Degeneration.
ease
were practically
the white
cells
die
an acute
during
episode.

died
the bird
therapy,
support
and
Adrenal
Body Hepatitis
of the dis
that
episodes
during
often
birds
These
non-existent.

AVIAN TUBERCULOSIS
We have followed
of Psittacine
TB in 3 years,
7 cases
showing
this
a threat.
disease
is rare
but still
shows
hemogram
Typical
to antibiotics),
We
and
SGOT
anemia.
high WBC (non-responsive
high
saw large
nodules
were
in the lungs
of one amazon parrot
but X-rays
cases.
uninformative
in most
that

FIGURE 2: HEMOGRAM
OF BLUE HEADED PIONUS PARROTWITH AVIAN TUBERCULOSIS

7/24/80 7/29/80 8/5/80 8/14/80 8/20/80 9/4/80

WBC

22,000

27i000

26,000

26,400

37,300

87

74

72
20

10

NPS

NPS

normal

normal

74

81

18

17

13

24

Monocytes

0

0

520

2

Eosinophils
Basophils

3

0
203 1

Heterophils
Lymphocytes

5

Blood

Parasites
PCV
Protein

Glucose

NPS

37

40

normal

Platelets

Tot.

NPS

3.3

normal

0

01

86

0

0
NPS
normal

NPS
normal

{RBC 2_g ^

158

22,500

2.8

SGOT 262 802

LDH 506 536
0.2

Creatinine
Uric

Acid

7-8

Calcium

10.7

were
Most tissues
died.
infiltrated
On 9-8-80
the bird
diffusely
were
case.
in
The
this
with Mycobacteria.
unhelpful
totally
X-rays
end.
the
but
until
and
ate
bad
to have
seemed
bird
Weight
good days
of the disease
the course
was progressive
loss
(210 g. to
throughout
was positive
on tuberculin
the family
No onein
testing.
175-8
g.)
one year before
of symptoms,
the onset
the bird
had possessed
The owners
set
until
the
disease
carried
the
bird
had
that
something
suggesting
our
of
TB
several
in
it off
birds).
(same history

PSITTACOSIS
the
the PCV is low,
the WBC is high,
in this
disease,
Typically,
the
If
total
is
the
in
SGOT is high,
and,
many cases,
protein
high.
be very
low.
will
the glucose
The WBC will
are involved,
adrenals
even with
the use
of tetracycline.
often
hemograms,
stay high for several

This content downloaded from 91.229.229.177 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 15:02:29 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

OF A PARAKEETON THE DAY IT DIED OF PSITTACOSIS
FIGURE 3: HEMOGRAM
WBC:
PCV:
18, - 20,000
32
(typical)
Bandlets:

50

(Very

Heterophils*

Tot.

0

Monocytes:
0

Eosinophils:
Basophils:

Normal

Platelets?

unusual)
14

Protein:

SGOT:

(usually

high)

3,600 (typical)
14 (Fourteen is

Glucose:
0

2.9

/*?-,
corr?-} compromise
(Adrenal

and

liver

disease)

EXOTIC VELOGENIC VISCEROTROPIC NEWCASTLEDISEASE
For the past
2 months,
Southern
has been
California
threatened
of VVND.
It has been traced
to young Yellow
by an outbreak
Naped Amazon
in
from
I
Mexico.
parrots
so that
these
the
smuggled
present
hemograms
can hopefully
readers
from
the
1
the
Bird
died
profit
experience.
day
after
the exam; bird
4 days later,
2 died
and bird
3 has been asympto
matic
to date.
Bird
swabbed
and has remained
3 has been
3 times
nega
as have the other
tive
in
birds
the
owner's
household.
Remember
exposed
that
the incubation
can be up to 4-00 days!
for WND
The State
period
to continually
swab these
birds
for over a year.
plans

FIGURE 4:

OF VVND IN THREE 8-12 WEEK OLD JUVENILE YELLOWNAPED
HEMOGRAM
AMAZONPARROTS
408.0 g
329-5 g
Weight 0
413.0 g

WBC x 10-*

Heterophils
Lymphocytes

Monocytes
Eosinophils

Basophils
Blood Parasites

Platelets
Total
Protein

Glucose

Comments

4-6

8-10

74 (many
toxic)

23

0 03
0 02

0
NPS

75

45

21

2(PCV:

normal

8-10

55
0
NPS

increased
2.5 3*0

NPS
Bird

normal

80 226
SGOT 294 152
K5.3
Na136
Dead next
day

4

Died
days
later

Bird

2: 43

3:

37)

4.5
149
Asymptomatic
to date
(2 mos.

later)

on the two that
died was WND.
Both showed
interstitial
Diagnosis
with
(one
pneumonitis,
splenitis),
necrotizing
erythrophagocy
splenomegaly
common in the disease),
in the liver
tosis
and acute
hemolytic
(apparently
I saw necropsied
a Psittacosis
looked
the bird
like
anemia.
Grossly,
etc.
but was hemorrhagic
bird with an enlarged
air
sacs,
cloudy
spleen,
a
to
and
had
clot
its
heart.
blood
adjacent
throughout
--

IME 40

Walter

J.

Rosskopf,

Jr.,

ASCARIDS IN AUSTRALIAN PARAKEETS

are
in Australian
Ascarids
parakeets
commonly found
(eg. rosellas,
and
Barabands,
Princess,
Many-colored
Crimson-winged
parakeets).
seen
cases
three
of intes
but I have
is questionable
Pathogenicity
from
other
are
eliminated
tinal
Ascarids
obstruction.
psittacines
easily

This content downloaded from 91.229.229.177 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 15:02:29 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

DVM

water
in the drinking
if
little
and consume

with levamisole
by treatment
are desert
parakeets
species

but most
any free

Australian
water.

was refused
water
In previous
medicated
water
studies,
consumption
on
examinations
flotation
fecal
birds.
Based
5 days by these
were
of the 280 keets
in our collection
shedding
10-20%
approximately
was
ova
ascarid
bird
treated
Each
to treatment.
by instilling
prior
Professional
15 mg/kg- levamisole
Veterinary
(Ripercol,
phosphate
a steel
needle
followed
the crop with
into
Pharmaceuticals)
feeding
a
to
was
second
taken
treatment
later.
Care
3 weeks
thoroughly
by
the
exams over
clean
the flight
treatment.
Fecal
after
cages
a
6 months
did not reveal
ascarid
ova,
suggesting
following
single
successful
treatment.
?
DVM
Keven
Flammer,
for

IME 41

TAPEWORMSIN AUSTRALIAN FINCHES

of helminth
but hexocanth
I have not yet identified
the species
masses
of the worms may
Tremendous
in the feces.
eggs are passed
be found
and small
sevens dilatation
in the large
intestines,
causing
from several
and complete
have been recovered
obstruction.
Tapeworms
of Parrot,
Hex Grass,
and Owl finches.
Gouldian,
species
Society
niclosamide
treatment
The lay literature
recommends
by adding
in water.
insoluble
the drinking
but this
is
water
drug
virtually
a field
I conducted
in owl finches.
trial
with niclosamide
were
2
owl
finches
administered
(100-200
mg0
mg/kg.)
Eighty-four
the crop
of niclosamide
in water
into
(Yomesan)
suspended
directly
was
in
The
with a 5 french
tube.
kept
by
drug
suspension
feeding
Treatment
the
of
to
time
administration.
constant
up
vortexing
right
were ob
effects
No ill
was repeated
14 days later.
in some birds
the feces.
in
and many birds
served
tapeworm
segments
degraded
passed
and necrop
a cure,
fecals
but follow-up
I had effected
I thought
was
still
over
infestation
a
revealed
month period
sies
three
present.
to cause
caused
sufficient
the niclosamide
gut irritation
Evidently
I am
but not the scolex.
of the proglottids
Currently
dislodgement
new
the
with
in
finches
trials
Society
dose-toxicity
conducting
Later,
cestocide
Haver-Lockhart).
(Droncit,
injectable
praziquantel
a
in
of
be
tested
number
will
if safety
is established,
efficacy
finch
Australian
species.
?
DVM
Keven
Flammer,
to

IME 42

CANDIDIASIS

IN COCKATIEL NESTLINGS

in cockatiel
A common problem
responsible
breeding
operations
is candidiasis
of the
week old nestlings
in
0-2
for high mortality
concurrent
with
is
often
associated
disease
This
crop and esophagus.
and collibacillosis.
Adults
may
infections,
chlamydiosis
especially
when
the
infect
and
be
carriers
nestlings
feeding.
asymptomatic
a cotton
.swab into
the crop
made by inserting
is easily
Diagnosis
a
show large,
will
slide.
Gram
onto
the contents
and smearing
staining
like
towel
Turkish
yeast
organisms.
oval,
budding
gram positive
the
and
at
in
be
crop
necropsy.
esophagus
may
present
plaques
manner:

Approximately

2000

adult

cockatiels

were

treated

in

This content downloaded from 91.229.229.177 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 15:02:29 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

the

following

The birds
chicken
were fed a cooked
mash containing
parts
equal
rice
and
To
this
millet
seed.
mash
of
scratch,
38.2
grams
15 pounds
of Myco 20 (a nystatin
20 grams nystatin
from Squibb
premix
containing
source
was added
food
for
and fed as the sole
per pound)
activity
Prior
be
from
to treatment
recovered
could
9 days.
yeast
organisms
most adults.
no
was
on
treatment
found
random
yeast
post
Virtually
and examination
over a 3 month period.
at necropsy
crop swabbing
?
DVM
Keven
Flammer,

IME 43

RENAL DISEASE

IN A LOVEBIRD

An eight
month old,
love
bird was presented
45 gm. blue-faced
with a six to seven
a
and tendency
of
decreased
day history
appetite
to seek heat.
The bird was one of a pair
the owner had had for one
month.
Its mate,
to the owner, was fine.
according
exam revealed
a thin,
Its
feathers
bird.
Physical
depressed
ruffled
and its
closed.
The mate was
eyes were partially
were two types
some
alert
and active.
There
of droppings:
bright,
of normal
and some that were
with white
urates,
consistency
excessively
and had yellow
urates.
watery

were

Blood
(Table
1)
creatinine
The
Ringer's

was taken
for a complete
blood
count
and chemistries.
a marked
an
elevated
Abnormalities
included
leukocytosis,
a
and
level.
SGOT
increased
value,
slightly
and Lactated
bird was treated
with ampicillin
(10 mg IM sid)
was seen by the next
solution
(1 cc SQ bid).
Improvement

day.

taken
five
the initiation
of
A second
blood
sample
days after
cell
it
treatment
in the white
blood
but
showed a decrease
count,
was still
to the owner the bird was normal,
above
normal.
According
were
taken
but ampicillin
for five
Blood
continued
days.
injections
at the end of the second
values
back
to
showed
treatment
all
period
were
were
the
and
urates
normal.
of
normal
All
consistency
droppings
was clinically
normal.
The patient
white.
to continue
it is very
As illustrated
case,
important
by this
can look
are normal.
The avian
treatment
until
blood
values
patient
even with severe
If
in the blood
well
picture.
changes
remarkably
treatment

is

appearance
practice
seven
to

stopped

too

soon,

as

may

WBC (xlo3)

H (%)
"
"

4/14
25-30

65

32

4/20

4/28

55

45

12-14

based

on

clinical

2
1

00
60

T.P.
SGOT

2.8
388

-

Creat.

0.8

"
"

8-10

48

39

07

E
B

if

1

0

M

case

the

It is usually
a serious
alone,
may occur.
good
relapse
an
in the water
for
antibiotic
treatment
with
to continue
are normal.
values
when blood
ten days past
the point
Table

L

be

- 4.5
344
- 0.4

--

Susan

R.

This content downloaded from 91.229.229.177 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 15:02:29 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Yanoff,

DVM

IME 44

"CAGED BIRDS CANNOTALWAYSBE CURED WITH ANTIBIOTICS"
DISEASE ENTITIES AFFECTING
AN OVERVIEW OF THE MOST COMMON
CAGED BIRDS

note:

Edited

for

to the author.)
length.
My apologies
birds
from a myriad
suffer
of disease
Caged
problems,
only some
of which possess
a bacterial
is
to
it
naive
Therefore,
etiology.
assume
that
sick
bird
to a veterinarian
will
benefit
every
presented
from the administration
of an antibiotic.
Metabolic
disease,
neoplasia,
and trauma
are major
toxicities,
of
illness
categories
among exotic
birds
and should
be considered
in a differential
always
diagnosis.
are additionally
birds
Caged
viral,
plagued
by chlamydial,
fungal,
and parasitic
diseases.
(Ed.

Of the bacterial
of caged
birds
that will
pathogens
respond
to antibiotics,
the members of the Enterobacteriaceae
(E. coli,
Klebsiella
Enterobacter
Proteus
Salmonella
sp.,
sp.,
sp.,
sp.,
etc.)
Pseudomonas
are probably
and
Pastuerella
the most common and
sp.,
sp.
troublesome.
is known about
the role
of anaerobic
bacteria
Very little
in the etiopathogenesis
of disease
birds.
among exotic
or secondary
Bacteria
with respect
to the patho
may be primary
of disease
in the avian
If
is
bacteria
genesis
patient.
suspect,
treatment
of necessity,
a culture
are,
until
and
programs
empirical
can be completed,
at which time the antibiotic
be
sensitivity
may
Possible
culture
from the living
include:
changed.
specimens
patient
choanal
slit
and pharyngeal
ocular,
abdominal
tracheal,
skin,
(oral),
feather
from follicle),
and
fluid,
cloacal,
tip
pulled
(freshly
abscess
will
(location
vary).
The
in newly
antibiotics,

chlamydial
agent
or pet
imported
tetracycline

of Psittacosis,
a very
common possibility
birds,
shop boarded
responds
only to specific
or Chloromycetin,
or both drugs
simultaneously.

is capable
of producing
in
Mycoplasma
disease
sp.
respiratory
a
It
birds.
is
fastidious
with
culture
caged
very
agent
specific
One must,
to the microbiology
indicate
lab
therefore,
requirements.
that Mycoplasma
is a suspect
and request
culture
methods.
sp.
special
This
is best
handled
with
agent
tylocine.
common bacterial
is a very
Pseudomonas
sp.
among exotic
pathogen
but
antibiotics
cannot
deal
it.
with
birds,
ordinary
successfully
one
or
must
to
turn
Therefore,
carbenicillin,
gentamycin,
tobramycin
as therapeutic
agents.
the agent
of tuberculosis,
is refractory
to
Mycobacterium
sp.,
all
of the conventional
The disease
antibiotics.
produces
granuloma
tous
lesions
and intestinal
within
the liver
tract
(and other
organs
if advanced).
It has a chronic,
course
and should
debilitating
always
be included
in the differential
when the patient
has this
diagnosis
and when many different
antibiotics
been used
have
type of illness
is
The
to
disease
difficult
ante
mortem and
unsuccessfully.
diagnose
it is one disease
not be treated
that
should
of public
because
health
implications.
are those
of infectious
Then there
disease
agents
etiologic
will
viral
not respond
and parasitic.
to any antibiotic:
fungal,
are Aspergillus
birds
two
(2) major
fungi
among caged
pathogenic
is
a respiratory
and Candida
albicans.
fumigatus
Aspergillosis
Candidiasis
with
disease
complications.
may be topical
systemic
cause
or
the
lesions
within
(ocular,
sinus,
crop.
etc.)

This content downloaded from 91.229.229.177 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 15:02:29 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

that
The

of significance
VVND
Viral
include
birds
agents
among caged
Newcastle
the avian
pox viruses,
disease),
(velogenic,
viscerotropic
viruses
Parrot
and Inclusion
Disease
parrot
(Pacheco's
herpes
Body
the avian
and coronavirus.
Each
influenza
Hepatitis),
viruses?
virus
is very distinct
with regards
to its pathogenesis
in some
and,
.
its
cases,
host(s)
Parasitic
integumentary

organs.

can be
diseases
and
those
system

divided
into
that
involve

affect
the
those
that
one or more internal

the scaly
an exclusive
is almost
face mite,
Cnemidocoptes
pilae,
of the budgie,
I have
it to parasitize
observed
parasite
although
an occasional
love
bird
and cockatiel.
This mite affects
only the
non-feathered
are pathognomonic.
and the lesions
of the bird
portions
are
common.
a group
Hemoproteus
Hemoparasites
sp.,
actually
of Protozoan
are
on
blood
smears
noted
blood
parasites,
frequently
from certain
as
of
as
well
the
Half-Moon
macaw,
cockatoo,
species
Micro
and an occasional
African
Parrot,
Grey Parrot,
Mynah Bird.
on blood
are often
smears
filaria
observed
from certain
species
of cockatoo
and represent
the offspring
of adult
whose
nematodes
exact
location
is unknown.
the body of the host
within
The respiratory
of caged
birds
may be parasitized
system
by
or protozoan.
the air
Sternostoma
tracheacolum,
insect,
helminth,
sac mite,
is found
sacs
in large
numbers within
of canaries
the air
and Lady Gouldian
Finches
most frequently,
may be
although
budgies
parasitized.
similarly
Gastrointestinal
birds
may be the result
parasitism
among caged
or
of protozoan,
cestode
Intestinal
nematodes
nematode,
parasites.
or
of significance
include
Capillaria
sp.
("Hairworms"
"Threadworms")
and Ascaridia
(ascarids).
sp.
common among exotic
are quite
and can
diseases
Metabolic
birds
be divided
and endocrine.
into
two (2) major
nutritional
categories:
a major
in the pathogenesis
of disease
in
role
Malnourishment
plays
on the
most caged
of ignorance
is usually
the result
birds.
This
deficient
of the client
and poor husbandry.
part
Being
nutritionally
in one or more nutrients
to the susceptibility
contributes
significantly
of that
to disease.
individual
diabetes
inclue
diseases
mellitis,
hypothryoidism,
new entity
a
and
of
disease
relatively
Mynah Birds,
iron-storage
J. Rosskopf,
and I have recently
Walter
Jr.,
described,
my partner,
seen
most
of
the
adrenal
inflammation
glands
frequently
involving
in certain
cockatoo
species.
rare
common among budgies
and relatively
is very
among
Neoplasia
on a
or
In fact,
the other
bump palpable
any lump
psittacines.
of
The tissue
of origin
otherwise.
is a tumor until
proven
budgie
or internal.
tumors must
Intra-abdominal
the neoplasm
may be external
masses
intra-abdominal
from non-neoplastic
be differentiated
and/or
of solid
tissue
in the
The incidence
fluid
accumulation.
neoplasms
are
of
the
blood
low
is
while
very
neoplasms
psittacines
larger
more common.
relatively
Endocrine

is not
Intoxication
and
freedom
unsupervised
lead
substances,
poisoning

an

uncommon problem
birds
with
among caged
results
from
of
toxic
usually
ingestion
the number one heavy metal
intoxication.
being

This content downloaded from 91.229.229.177 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 15:02:29 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Trauma represents
the final
of major
agents
etiologic
category
Trauma
is usually
encountered
medicine.
of avian
in the practice
free
or closed
to contact
with a wall
window during
flight
secondary
in the house,
from
cat
another
received
attack,
bird,
dog
injury
etc.
rough handling
Unfortunately,
by the client,
leg band problems,
cause
the exact
but
is always
is not always
treatment
known,
symptomatic.
?
DVM
W. Woerpel,
Richard
. .If
IMS 45
die
birds
despite
always
try to have them
therapy
clinical
This
correlate
and will
data
autopsied.
helps
pathology
are present
states
in your area.
you know what disease
help
Many
as a public
will
not charge
for this
Labs
service
County or State
health
policy.
?
Walter
J. Rosskopf,
Jr.,

DVM

. . In our experience,
IME 46
are much
antibiotics
injectable
we
For
to use
than oral
easier
antibiotic
drops.
try to use
therapy,
one
one
2 compatible
the
and
in
water
Once
drugs,
by injection.
the problem
the
at
is under
water
is
least
continued
control,
drug
are willing
and able
another
week.
Clients
to give
if
injections
on
a
I
safer
than
find
much
this
client
not
to
necessary.
relying
choke his
much
faster
bird with an oral
antibiotic
(and
also).
?
J. Rosskopf,
Walter
Jr.,

DVM

. . Don't
be overly
to surgically
IME 47
anxious
can be handled
in birds.
Most fractures
with
slings
is
desired.
With
absolute
unless
splints
perfection
a different
its
that have
to fly perfectly,
story.
?
Walter

DVM

. . Corneal
ulcers
IME 48
(not caused
by pox
This way the
well
the lids
to suturing
together.
I use 4-0
are used.
the medications
itself
while
out in 7 days.
--

are

IME 49
usually

. . The
bacterial

little

scabs

granulomas

seen
from

fractures
repair
and coaptation
birds
hunting
J.

Rosskopf,

Jr.,

virus)
respond
cannot
bird
injure
silk
stitches
and take

Walter

J.

Rosskopf,

Jr.,

on the mouths
of sick
parakeets
disease
processes.
overwhelming
?
J. Rosskopf,
Walter
Jr.,

DVM

DVM

. . If you see Amazon parrots
crowned
Lilac
IME 50
(particularly
on
to
make
their
them
look
heads
with yellow
and Mexican
Red Heads)
are
with
Headed
like
Yellow
Amazons,
Double
you
probably
dealing
as
more
can
birds
for
these
sell
The
Mexicans
birds.
money
illegal
seen
even
with
Half-moon
parrots
dyed yellow
(I have
"good talkers".

heads!

)

Walter

Many
never

**#

J.

Rosskopf,

Jr.,

DVM

. . Beware
in Blue-fronted
Amazons.
of chronic
IME 51
eye problems
from
will
virus
and
suffered
have
of these
pox
damage
permanent
keratitis
chronic
etc.)
ulcers,
be normal
sicca,
(anterior
synechiae,
?
DVM
J. Rosskopf,
Walter
Jr.,
***************

This content downloaded from 91.229.229.177 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 15:02:29 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IME 52
ostriches
is

.

.

in
of the gastrocnemius
tendon
is
and repair
effected.
reposition
Two ostriches
from
ages
5 and 10 weeks were recently
acquired
sources
and were fed high manganese
different
and other
vitamin
sup
. The birds
were presented
one
week
plements
apart
approximately
with acute
lateral
of the gastrocnemius
luxation
tendon.
The medial
of the tibiotarsus
had also
torn through
and the
the skin
condyle
was exposed
cases.
in both
joint
Ketamire 25mg/kg was used
to immobolize
The tendon
the birds.
was repositioned
between
the condyles
and the skin laceration
sutured.
Four weeks
later
the same leg on the younger
bird
in a
luxated
similar
fashion.
All
were repaired
one hour or
within
injuries
less
of onset.
All
occurred
one while
the
injuries
spontaneously,
was watching
the birds.
No trauma was involved.
zookeeper
To date
both birds
are able
to walk well.
(six months later)
The bird with the recurrent
walks
with
rotated
outward.
injury
digits
The other
has enlarged
bird
but
tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal
joint
walks
without
any difficulty.
-- Robert
DVM
Groskin,
of luxation
Repair
if immediate
possible

to Sherry
Curator
of Birds
at Lion
(Ed. Note:
Branch,
According
in
Safari
was common with
this
Florida,
Country
type of luxation
last
to be related
to growing
too
young ostriches
year and seemed
on too much body weight
fast
and putting
before
could
the legs
it.
She has prevented
this
the
support
episodes
year
by reducing
and increasing
caloric
intake
exercise.
Instead
of providing
bowls
of feed
stood
and consumed
for long periods
(where they previously
a smaller
of time),
she throws
amount of food
out
pellets)
(turkey
over the ground where
con
to scratch
for it.
A larger
they have
area
a day,
finement
has been provided.
Three
times
dark greens
are
with Vionate.
escarole,
offered,
etc.)
(spinach,
sprinkled
The birds
of age and up) are
"run" for 15 minutes
(from 5 days
each day for additional
twice
exercise.)
IME 53
It is my understanding
that Tobramycin
(Nebein-Lily)
is the drug of choice
for Pseudomonas
in human medicine
(99% Tobra
vs.
has up to 3x the
mycin
95% gentamicin).
Mg per mg, Tobramycin
pseudomonicidal

activity

of

In

gentamicin.

Pseudomonas

septicemias,

due to poor
(often
preceded
by pharyngeal
overgrowth
clinically
and
carbenicillin
nutrition)
husbandry
parenteral
(Geopen-Roerig),
when sensitive,
is the most efficacious
treatment
plus
Tobramycin
are
for Pseudomonas.
of Tobramycin
to
Pharmacokinetics
identical
The
life
of
is
short
half
and
carbenicillin
gentamicin.
parenteral
doses
in mammals vary widely.
-- Alan Mo
DVM
Fudge,
IME 54
Pfizer)
suspension
(VibramycinDoxycycline
treatment
for
not
efficacious,
approved,
psittacosis
though
is 2.5
sensitive
bacteria.
Dosage
doxycycline-tetracvcline
bid in an amazon
(400 g).
-- Alan M.
Fudge,

The California
complete
very
E. McDonald,

Veterinarian

(4/1981)

of "Psittacosis
discussion
DVM and Edmond V. Bayer,

recently

published

in Pet Birds"
DVM, MPVM.

This content downloaded from 91.229.229.177 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 15:02:29 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

is an
and
mg PO
DVM

a

by Scott

I can safely
IME 55
I have
small
anesthetize
all
found that
a cotton
mask impregnated
with metafane
and
birds
face
by using
and a vaporizer.
mask using
with a small
birds
animal
halothane
larger
for depth
Birds
must be watched
closely
put down with this
procedure
of anesthesia
when
the
but it works well
and they revive
quickly

mask

is

removed.

R.

Dean

Axelson,

. . I treat
vitamin
IME 56
sick
birds
all
with a multiple
mineral
form added
to their
in an aqueous
mixture
water,
along
of cage
I find a high percentage
whatever
is needed.
medicine
are on a poor diet.
on this
are then maintained
These
birds
diet
and
their
improved.
supplement
permanently
--

R.

Dean

Axelson,

DVM.

with
birds

DVM

Serum Separator
Brand Capillary
Blood
IME 57
B-D Microtainer
from birds
can be used
and separate
blood
to collect
tubes
samples
of a unique
serum yield.
is composed
The system
for maximum usable
a red plug.
and
a
with
material
tube
barrier
inert
collector,
plastic
the collector
has been
of blood
When the desired
amount
collected,
is removed
from the tube and replaced
providing
by the red plug,
and spillage.
from
contamination,
evaporation
protection
clotted
blood
is spun in a
tube
The stoppered
containing
to
the
material
barrier
inert
microcentrifuge,
causing
high-speed
a
and form
barrier
seek
interface
the serum-clot
separating
physically
serum from the cell
clot.
of
clinical
The B-D company has done
comparisons
parallel
devices
other
micro-collection
and
collected
this
with
system
samples
results
for
and has found no clinically
in
differences
significant
for human
Since
is designed
this
the most common determinations.
own expressed
limitations
their
blood
collection,
suggest
capillary
chemistry

should
with

not

values

may

be

results

affect

are
Studies
Psittacosis

different

taken

done
being
evaluation

from

venous

from veins

to see
if
and other

serum,

of birds.

however

this

interferes
barrier
the inert
tests.
avian
specific
-DVM
Barry Mitzner,

************************

PSITTACOSIS

TESTS

at
the Microbiology
to Dr.
Department
Jerry Grimes,
According
tests
to do Complement-Fixation
is prepared
A&M
Texas
University
than
.lcc
less
Since
for Psittacosis.
they use microtechniques,
be collected
should
test.
of serum is required
for each
Samples
as possible,
and sent
cooled
as aseptically
and separated
immediately
Each
or frozen
and shipped
with dry ice.
with
ice packs,
serology

test

is $5.

tests
from fecal
Psittacosis
isolation
doing
They are also
for cloacal
media
the transport
for $8 each.
Apparently
samples
is not totally
in California
kits
in the surveillance
used
swabs
therefore
for long
distance
they recommend
transport,
satisfactory
For more
be sent
frozen
with dry ice.
that
the fecal
samples
write
to 1 Dr. Jerry
or requests
for Submission
Forms,
information
Texas
A&M
of Vet.
and Parasitology,
Grimes,
Dept.
Microbiology
TX
Station,
77843
College
University,

This content downloaded from 91.229.229.177 on Tue, 17 Jun 2014 15:02:29 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions