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In My Experience

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A.A.V. Newsletter
DOI:
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Date:
September, 1981
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1

1982 Avian Meetings

Tahun:
1981
Bahasa:
english
File:
PDF, 273 KB
2

What's Happening with Members

Tahun:
1981
Bahasa:
english
File:
PDF, 193 KB
Association of Avian Veterinarians

In My Experience
Source: A.A.V. Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 3 (Sep., 1981), pp. 5-14
Published by: Association of Avian Veterinarians
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IN MY EXPERIENCE.
. . There
some problems
of
are
with
IME 58
interpretation
to
due
the
of
of
wide
results
variables
birds
range
cage
hematology
birds
in general;
that
variations
stressors
involved:
affect
among
or from a
is a newly
bird
the patient
whether
species;
imported
There
is not
sufficient
information
available
situation.
breeding
as they relate
to characterize
to captivity,
etc.
the stressors
diet,
as opposed
to domestic
animals.
?

David

Graham,

D.V.M.

(From AVMAMeeting)

IME 59
It is completely
to swab for a culture
valueless
of a bird
from the external
nares
due to environmental
contamination.
a microbiological
It is much more valid
from the
to take
sample
of one
infection
have
nasal
and sinuses.
passages
(Very few birds
to wash
the sinus
is used
the other.)
Sterile
saline
without
cavity
not produce
does
the material.
itself
if aspiration
?

David

Graham,

D.V.M.

(From AVMAMeeting)

IME 60
sacs
the air
the endoscopy
on the right

. . An endoscope
or otoscope
to examine
may be used
A sw; ab can be taken
and peritoneal
through
cavity.
sac
infection
air
hole.
Amazons
may have more severe
so check
both
sides.
side,
?

David

Graham,

D.V.M.

(From AVMAMeeting)

. .In
to
for hemocytblogy,
IME 61
data
you need
recording
add how and where
the bloo.d was collected.
There
may be a difference
are
The most consistent
to site.
results
taken
in values
from site
?
a 23 down to 27 gauge
the
needle
from the
with
right
jugular
is bigger.
jugular
be produced
with manual
restraint
in values
Differences
may also
are
of tane birds
as opposed
to wild
birds.
also
Values
caught
versus
between
with ketamine
anesthesia
birds
different
restrained
in
a
count
be
involved
would
There
heterophil
manually.
higher
of the stress
manual
because
restraint
phenomena.
?

David

Graham,

D.V.M.

(From AVMAMeeting)

. . There
are
WBC values,
methods
of obtaining
IME 62
several
error.
I
of
recommend
the Semi
most of which have
degrees
high
Indirect
WBC Count which
requires:
count
total
absolute
(a.)
heterophil-eosinophil
count.
differential
(b.)
even
smear with
method
Use the cover
for a good
preparation
slip
on this
see
For instructions
distribution.
Veterinary
3rd Edition,
& Febiger,
and Carroll;
Lea
Jain,
Hematology
P? 26-27
1975?
by Schalm,

STEP 1:

DIFFERENTIAL COUNT (Use Wright's

Example: Heterophils
Eosinophils
Immature

Het

38*)

1J>

1

Stain)

^

Lymphocytes 47

Monocytes
Basophils

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13

0

-6

STEP 2:

TOTAL HETEROPHIL/EOSINOPHIL

COUNT

and mix in phloxine
diluent
Dilute
that
specificaJ
(a.dye
and eosinophils).
both
the
Use
of
stains
heterophils
granules
in
as
for eosinophil
Test
Count
5^77
hemocytometer
Unopette
of mammal blood.
count
=
cu. mm.
Total
Example:
4412/
Het/Eos

CALCULATE TOTAL WBC

STEP 3s

Example:

for
1.

CAUTIONS

2.

TWBC

=

TWBC

=

TWBC

=

4412

100

39

4412 x 100
39
11,313/ cu. mm.

more accuate
results:
from bird
Collect
blood
and make smear
EDTA.
before
adding
Do not hold
mixture
with EDTA for more
before
testing.
?

David

immediately
than

30 minutes

D.V.M.

Graham,

(From AVMAMeeting)

the owner of a newly
that
It is recommended
IME 63
imported
on
of psittacosis
for
after
it
prevention
keep
chlortetracycline
been
be
treatment
found
to
sufficient
has
days1
Thirty
quarantine.
some grass
in small
birds
cockatiels,
finches,
parakeets;
45 days
and up to 60 days
for macaws
for
is recommended
amazon-sized
birds,
bird

and

cockatoos.

comes
to get a
in giving
The problem
enough
tetracycline
it.
The
to
maintain
level
blood
and
tetracycline-treated
specific
but are not yet accepted
show promise
officially.
pellets
is generally
, (tetracycline-treated
Keet
Life
millet)
given
are
if the birds
to the smaller
and is well-accepted
birds,
already
as
seed
diet.
If
of
their
millet
with
familiar
accep
part
regular
of
it
the
with
small
amounts
tance
is a problem,
try introducing
over
to
Life.
Keet
For
then gradually
normal
seed,
change
straight
to
millet
seeds
need
the
for
smash
easier
finches,
you may
very
tiny
to treat
In some cases,
the drinking
water
you may want
consumption.
of
as well
per gallon
water).
(250 mg chlortetracycline
SF Mix 66, mixed
to
treatment
with
For larger
birds,
according
seems
a palatable
on the back with
be
to
ade
the directions
food,
.
quate
of people
I have heard
when
drops
tetracycline
using
pediatric
no other
source
the
of the drug was available.
concentration
However,
so increasing
the amount by ten fold
is only
required,
1/10 the dose
not
is
to produce
levels
blood
impractical,
only
economically
required
volume.
at
it may interfere
that
with
consumption
?
D.V.M.
Ralph
Cooper,

(From AVMAMeeting)

.

is important
to remember
when testing
that
do
not
birds
it every
the
shed
organism,
chlamydia
a
of
them
series
would
samples,
putting
taking
suggest
for
tube
and shipping
together
diagnosis.
IME

64

.It

for the
I
day.
in the same

?_r\-^-_"n_1Z_M_

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-7

. . During
IME 65
treatment
whatever
for the
you choose
regime
I
would
recommend
or
of
treatment
heartily
psittacosis,
prevention
of vitamins
doses
are
additional
and anti-fungal
(which
agents
advised
to
antibiotic
any
crop
during
prevent
prolonged
therapy)
mold and other
of fungi.
Calcium
overgrowth
(or more
Proprionate
can be added
Sodium
to the food
recently
(1 heaping
Proprionate)
of
Additional
doses
of vitamins,
in
per
teaspoon
pound
food).
to
the
Vitamin
raise
of
resistance
the
mucosal
A,
particular
appear
to infection.
surfaces
?
D.V.M.
Ralph
Cooper,

(From AVMAMeeting)

. .Of
IME 66
the many E.
coli
serotypes,
90-95f? are probably
not pathogenic.
But if they are pathogenic,
they can be deadly!
A wide variety
of symptoms have
been
with
produced
deliberately
a variety
of serotypes
of the organism.
Unfortunately,
serotyping,
to identify
are
the
"hot"
which
is not part
of a
pathogens,
normal
diagnostic
laboratory's
regime.
E.
coli
as meal
cultured
from such things
worms
has been
fed to a variety
of birds.
In fact,
who eats
normally
any bird
animal
will
from time to time.
have E.
coli
Birds
in the
protein
wild
source
this
season.
food
increase
usually
during
breeding
If E.
coli
is recovered
from a routine
culture
from healthy
I would
a
its
If
from the
bird
birds,
presence.
ignore
single
flock
I would
is sick,
an eye on the rest.
treat
bird
and keep
that
?
D.V.M.
Cooper,
Ralph

(From AVMAMeeting)

IME 67
A universal
tube feeding
I have
formula
used
for
term maintenance
of birds
as snakes,
is
(as well
cats,
long
dogs)
2 jars
of Gerbers
Strained
Meat mixed with
1 can Esbilac
and a
little
to rinse
water
out
can be stored
This
in the refrig
jars.
erator
for 5 days.
?

Earl

D.V.M.

Schobert,

(DVM Newsmagazine

Interview)

. . Aspergillosis
IME 68
as a disease-producer
is hard
to
and treat.
We may culture
the organism
out of the penguins
diagnose
at the zoo,
but they are
a stress
normal
until
occurs
clinically
as the air
conditioner
down
the
(such
and
birds
breaking
getting
at which
time we will
a bird
or two to the disease.
lose
overheated)
?

In talking
with
Pat Redig
at
(Ed. note:
that
cause
heat
stress
is the primary
of
in
the
to
phages
leading
lung,
respiratory
aspergillosis.)

Bill

Boever,

D.V.M.

the AFA meeting,
he stated
destruction
of the macro
for example,
disease,
(DVM Newsmagazine
Interview)

IME

Since
birds1
reactions
to consumption
of certain
69
I've
wondered
if there
is a possible
poisons
correlation
vary,
between
the condition
of the liver
and the toxic
reaction.
For
suspected
a mixture
I tube feed
of 10-12
cc milk
of magnesia
with
poisonings,
1 teaspoon
activated
charcoal.
powdered
aquarium
--

Earl

Schobert,

(DVM Newsmagazine

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D.V.M.

Interview)

-b

. . A captive
and hand-raised
will
bird
IME 70
make a much
bred
in
of
terms
and
one
that
is
than
imported,
longevity
pet
It
be
will
also
for
captivity.
relatively
suitability
psychological
free
of stress
as in feather
related
diseases
cockatoos).
(such
picking
?
Graeme
Phipps
(From AFA Seminar)
better

. . Antihistamines,
as pediatric
such
Naldecon
syrup
71
nil
in the
may be used
Bristol)
(5 mg Phenylpropanolamine
HCl/5
to help
of respiratory
problems
dry up the sinuses,
early
stages
a little
bit
more comfortable
and allow
him to eat
make the bird
cause
the
of
are
for
disease.
the
better
while
you
primary
looking
.1 ml bid for a macaw;
are given
The drops
.05 ml bid for
orally:
IME

an

amazon.

--

Phil

D.V.M.

Ensley,

(From

AFA

Seminar)

. . The SF Mix 66 chlortetraycline
Feed
for the
Premix
IME 72
does
to
be
not
have
used
of psittacosis
and treatment
prevention
on
as
mash
scratch
the rice
and chicken
with
suggested
strictly
You can mix appropriate
other
doses-with
the back
of the package.
be more palatable.
Just make sure
the other
soft
foods
that
might
as calcium
of calcium,
levels
ties
do not
foods
contain
up
high
It is now recommended
it unavailable.
and makes
the tetracycline
for 45 days,
rather
be treated
than
that
30.
psittacines
--

Ed

D.V.M.

Bayer,

(From

AFA

Seminar)

. . In regard
a laparoscope,
to surgical
with
IME 73
sexing
on
I would
before
150-200
pigeons
practicing
attempting
suggest
on a more valuable
euthanize
bird.
the procedure
you could
Perhaps
on
check
it
and
relation
the bird
site,
afterward,
up
open
entry
etc.
inflicted
of organs,
by the scope,
damage
possible
ships
become
to
familiar
with
the
best
is
the
way
Experience
magnification
of the lens
and organ
effect
appearances.
so the anesthetized
a clear
for laparoscopy
I use
drape
plastic
more
can
monitored
the
be
surgery.
patient
easily
during
with:
Problems
may occur
throw your
to entry
"landmarks'1
1.
(it will
prior
positioning
2.
3.

out of kilter)
-

bleeding
bleeding,
fat birds

be willing
to stop
if skin
incision
a
of
and try again.
wait
couple
days
- difficult
to observe
and differentiate
?

Mitch-

(From

Bush,

starts
gonads.

D.V.M.

AFA Seminar)

. . For surgical
of birds,
I prefer
the
74
sexing
doing
and
the
standard
found
without
anesthesia!
otoscope
using
technique
For me, this
in a veterinary
of choice
is the
instrument
practice.
on
and
lens
the
of its
itself
is
the out
because
since
portability,
is less
when looking
there
of the body,
disorientation
side
through
to remove
food
for 2-3 hours
and water
I advise
clients
it.
prior
seen
I have
if the
to the procedure.
behavior
hypoglycemic-like
and you may have
been
have
fasted
birds
problems.
Following
overnight,
a
suture
to
with
absorbable
I take
material
stitch
the procedure,
and then spray
with
of the skin
the healing
enhance
incision,
IME

Nitrofurazone.

?

?

-r-i-l

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t

1

P

ir

Hit

-9

a nationwide
IME 75
It appears
that
been
standard
has
are
sexed
in
for
birds.
Females
marked
the
developed
marking
or
a
or
of
letters
web
tatoo
left
numbers,
(either
injection
wing
. Males
are marked
on the right
of India
ink under
side
the skin)
?

Greg

Harrison,

.

D.V.M.

. . One of the most meticulously
IME 76
cared
for patients
an avian
is
to
encounter
that
is
practitioner
likely
veterinary
the trained
between
The bond established
falconer
and falcon
falcon.
of association
is strong,
nutured
and months
which
pro
by weeks
an extreme
duces
level
of confidence
in the bird
toward
her
When a falcon
for examination
handler.
is presented
and treatment,
of
the things
must do are
the veterinarian
many
completely
to which
to the handling
the falcon
is
procedures
contrary
accustomed.
If the bird
is
the veterinarian
handled,
improperly
can do irreparable
to the bond between
the bird
and the
damage
I find
handler.
For this
it desireable
to anesthetize
reason,
the birds
to
for even routine
blood
work or bandage
changes
in manual
minimize
the stress
involved
restraint.
?
D.V.M.
Pat Redig,

(From AFA Seminar)

as aspergillosis
as a disease
Inasmuch
is regarded
77
an
I
administer
host,
suppressed
affecting
immunologically
as an immuno-stimulant.
I have
a single
found
levamisole
of
2
at
the
of
to
onset
have measureable
treatment
injection
mg/kg
effects
to
we^ks.
7
up
?
Pat Redig,
D.V.M.
AFA
(From
Seminar)
IME

. . Aspergillosis
IME 78
to have
several
appears
syndromes:
or bronchus,
1.
in
A localized
the
trachea
lesion,
obstructing
can be surgically
which
and the area
removed
swabbed
with
ampho
B.
tericin
2.
of overwhelming
of spores.
due to inhalation
number
Acute,
been
to
This
treatment.
.has
type
refractory
completely
Chronic
host
with
reaction.
3*
4.
host
Chronic
with minimal
reaction.
on the immunological
The degree
of debilitation
status
depends
of the host
numbers
and the
of organisms
involved.
B
Amphotericin
is a useful
cases.
Intravenous
of
drug in chronic
injections

amphotericin

B (1-5 mg/kg) are given

tid"for

3 days.

Although

the

dose may appear
of this
determinations
pharmacodynamic
high,
drug
in birds
a TWp
of less
than 3 hours
has revealed
and no evidence
. Intratracheal
of nephrotoxicity
do not
1980)
(Redig,
injections
but are
blood
levels
also
useful.
Use 1 mg/kg and dilute
produce
to 2 cc with
water.
sterile
Other
elements
in the treatment
included
have
5-fluoro
regime
I
found
40 mg/kg orally
have
(Ancoban,
cytosine
Hoffman-LaRoche).
tid
to be safe
in all
of ,birds,
in raptors
that
however,
species
dose
is only fungistatic.
We have
the
dose
increased
gradually
and found
120 mg/kg tid
to be safe
in raptors,
and fungicidal
but
the toxicity
not
been
has
tested
for that
dose
in other
species.

Rifampin
tid.

(Rifadin,

Dow Chemical)

has been used
~

at 30 mg/kg orally

Pat

Redig,

D.V.M.

(From AFA Seminar)

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-10

. . A recently
of the Kirschner
IME 79
modification
developed
a
wide
of
of
in
used
the
fixation
fractures
and
splint
variety
in
involves
the
those
periarticular
replace
regions
particularly
or
bar
and clamps
ment of the external
with Hexcelite
stabilizer
or
mora
Four
are
material.
other
per
pins
placed
type casting
on either
of the fracture
as
side
site
to the bone
pendicularly
of
with
several
then wrapped
is necessary,
while
Hexcelite
layers
an assistant
in alignment.
If the Hexcelite
the bones
holds
starts
a hair
to harden
before
soften
it up again
you are ready,
dryer will
so you can work with
it.
?
D.V.M,
Pat Redig,
AFA
Seminar)
(From

IME 80

. . IN REGARD TO IME 39t I feel

it

is misleading

for VVND can be up to 400 days.
the incubation
say that
period
the birds
to say that
It is more correct
may be sub-clinical
been known to intermittantly
of the disease,
and have
carriers
shed the virus
up to 400 days.
?

Daryl

to

D.V.M.

Johnson,

. . IN REGARD TO IME 30, regarding
of micro
81
presence
smears
of cockatoos.
I have
blood
observed
in peripheral
filaria
same in several
and
sulfur
albas,
crests,
lessers,
greater
species:
are abdominal
not been
and have
and moluccans.
filariids
Adults
if any.
much irritation
Years
to cause
observed
ago we found
and at
in
Francolia
Indian
microfilaria
Gray
partridges
peripheral
were
a
heartworm.
These
true
discovered
mortem
post
subsequently
I have
not had
as Paronchocera
narsoletti
identified
(Sp?).
for this.
to treat
birds
occasion
?
D.V.M.
Allen
Miyahara,
IME

in

.
IME 82
the following

. IN REGARD TO IME 44, we have
mites
found
face
finches
and
Gouldian
species:
Lady
ringneck
?

Allen

. . I have
used
IME 83
successfully
equal
of oral
violet
and DMS0 for treatment
candidiasis
to conventional
treatment.
nystatin
refractory

also
parakeets.
D.V.M.

Miyahara,

2% crystal
parts
was
which

Kenneth

D.V.M.

Fletcher,

. . All
are force
in my practice
birds
IME 84
hospitalized
of NutricalR,
HiProtein
fed a mixture
milk,
powdered
soybean
baby
, 2-4 times
and Suprapreen
cereal
daily.
?

JonEsposito,

D.V.M.

IM injections
in
and opinion,
-In
IME 85
my experience
now
cause
too
I
much
tissue
trauma.
small
birds
(i.e.
budgies)
can be easily
P.O.
to budgies
medications
all
administer
Budgies
a
a
at
at
the
time
commissure
medication
medicated
drop
by putting
even when the beak
there
is closed.
of the beak where
is an opening
so
can
he
swallow.
Then hold
the bird
upright
?

JonEsposito,

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D.V.M.

-11

. . I think
a favor
if you
do your
clients
IME 86
you would
on
a
look
for
in
to
I
what
would
advice
them
cage
buying
give
were
In one,
the bars
too
several.
have had bad experiences
with
was found
far apart
and a bird
B770)
by his neck.
(Hagen
hanging
was not flush
when closed,
In a cage
I had by Preview,
the door,
toe in the space
between.
While
lost
his
the cage,
and a bird
with
are
if
the large
iron Mexican
round wrought
attractive,
you
cages
narrows
to nothing,
at the top
between
the space
the bars
notice,
"stuck"
there.
and birds
have
gotten
?
Meeker
Gloria
. . IN REGARD TO IME 54, Vibramycin
IME 87
may be an effective
as
but
Dr.
for
of
the treatment
out,
pointed
psittacosis,
Fudge
drug
of a veter
I heard
it is not approved.
At the San Diego
meeting,
a valuable
to psittacosis
sued
bird
he lost
after
inarian
being
the
with
while
unapproved"
"officially
drug.
treating
?

Greg

Harrison,

D.V.M.

. . DON'T
I recently
EVERYTHING
YOU READ:
BELIEVE
IME 88
a
in
and severe,
convulsions
but non-fatal
acute
death
induced
Mynah,
in a cockatoo
with Levamisole
13.6$.
injectible,
were
in
and Capillarids,
The birds,
harbored
Ascaridi'a
which
were
The
medication
and
otherwise
health,
carefully.
weighed
good
I
of 40 mg/kgwas administered
S.C.
which
This
at a dose
dose,
in
least
current
is
at
had used
in
the
5
past,
successfully
given
references.

of Pet Farm,
Clubb
Susan
with Dr.
A hasty
consultation
phone
at
bad
had
had
similar
that
revealed
she,
too,
Miami,
experiences
use
of
the
oral
Levamisole
recommends
and
this
dose
(5 ml/
level,
water).
gal.
so widely
as it seems,
it get
how did
If this
is as toxic
dose
Do the people
recommend
this
that
in the literature???
promulgated
reactions?
use
it?
Have
dose
any untoward
they observed
actually
?
D.V.M.
Richard
Smith,
IME 1, Greg Harrison
In the very
first
Newsletter,
(Ed. note:
as the only
10
of water
of
his
recommendation
reported
cc/gallon
In
source
for worming
of drinking
for 24 hours
water
psittacines.
of
the
IME 40, Keven
of
Levamisole
the
Flammer
reported
necessity
tubing
that
of 15 mg/kg for Australian
into
the crop at the dose
parakeets
don!t
much
drink
water.)
normally
. . An Unusual
in
for Regurgitation
Cause
IME 89 CASE REPORT
a Parakeet
was presented
to the clinic
for vomiting
A 3 year
old parakeet
worse.
was
and
which
2 weeks
had begun
prior
getting
progressively
was
but
was depressed,
and
The animal
still
puffy
passing
eating
droppings.
ruled
out physiological
and
A complete
regurgitation
history
were
No foreign
of the crop.
or impaction
bodies
irritation
grit
can be
and the crop wasn't
thickened
in the crop,
which
palpable
or trichomonas
the bird
Since
a result
infections.
of Candida
was ruled
a bowel
was still
out.
obstruction
droppings,
passing
of
was
the
taken
culture
and
A
revealed
and sensitivity
crop
a non-hemalytic
and a coagulase
streptococcus
negative
staphylococcus.

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-12

were not
considered
The next
These
primary
pathogens.
organisms
was
an
owner
with
barium.
The
offered
X-ray
step
diagnostic
and after
course
short
of
declined
further
testing
diagnostic
died.
the
bird
antibiotics,
a thickened
area
revealed
Gross
of
of the bird
autopsy
near
was
the
tissue
which
junction
proventricular-gizzard
partially
on the tissue
the lumen.
a proven
revealed
Histopath
obstructing
this
is a rare
tricular
another
adenocarcinoma.
condition,
Although
had been
and had b^gm to regurgitate
that
parakeet
light"
"going
was found
a proventricular
to have
adenocarcinoma
also.
seen
The only
that
other
this
author
condition
has
reported
but hasn't
found
to
is
related
helminths
proventricular
clinically
cause
of
is another
which
in
birds.
possible
vomiting
?
Richard
Nye, D.V.M.
IME

90

CASE

REPORT

.

. Proventricular

Which Mimicked Thyroid Hyperplasia

Hyperplasia

(Dysplasia)

in

a

Parakeet

was presented
an expiratory
old parakeet
with
A 7 year
squeak
of
The squeak
which was clinically
thyroid
suggestive
"dysplasia".
as the thyroid
is produced
and displace
the syrinx
glands
enlarge
thus
the
bronchi
and
the
lumen.
narrowing
stretching
revealed
the bird
to be in good
examination
and
flesh
Physical
for the expiratory
A tentative
except
healthy
clinically
squeak.
was made and the bird
was given
of thyroid
"dysplasia"
diagnosis
cc of Sodium
0.01
iodide
Also
3-5 drops
intramuscularly
daily.
of Lugol's
was added
to the drinking
water
solution
The
daily.
in
the
showed
first
of
bird
hours
72
improvement
therapy,
slight
or excitement.
was
but the squeak
with
exercise
still
present
were
to the treatment
.02 mg Tylan
added
Antibiotics
regime,
no
was
seen.
and
50 injectable
daily
intramuscularly,
improvement
The owner believed
to be suffering
the bird
and requested
euthanasia.
The gross
revealed
but the
autopsy
normally
thyroids
appearing
was
as
the
of
it
proximal
proventricuius
portion
enlarged
quite
between
to
the
left
and
dorsal
and
the
main
passed
syrinx
right
was physically
bronchi.
This
the bronchi
enlargement
distending
thus leading
to the expiratory
heard.
squeak
Histopathology
to be hyperplastic,
tissue
revealed
the proventricular
suggestive
of chronic
a mystery
The etiology
since
irritation.
remained
no cultures
no parasites
were
were
and the bird
done,
found,
rarely
in eating
indulged
grit.
?
Richard
Nye, D.V.M.
. . Differential
of Avian
Diarrhea
91
Diagnosis
to be differentiated
needs
It can
from diarrhea.
Polyuria
occur
fruit
due to increased
certain
excitement
intake,
drugs,
metabolic
and infectious
to clinic),
disease.
disorders,
(car ride
be
well
formed
The fecal
when
the
will
while
excreted,
component
diluted.
urates
be usually
will
can be due to excite
a non-medical
Loose
stools,
condition,
and
increased
fluid
intake.
of
diet,
ment,
change
common cause
tend to be the most
of diarrhea.
Bacterial
agents
often
will
The fecal
from dark
to light
change
green.
component
In parakeets,
the color
will
to green.
Some strains
go from black
cause
of excess
the production
intestinal
will
fluid,
notably
can
coli.
Severe
and some E.
Klebsiella
enteritis
hemorrhagic
feces.
been
Psittacosis
has
to
said
black,
occur,
tarry
causing
some
is
this
cases.
in
true
feces;
produce
lime-green
IME

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can cause
of normal
Antibiotics
diarrhea,
by alteration
gut
can
occur.
Yeast
(Candida)
overgrowths
cause
when causing
clinical
will
Nematode
disease,
parasites,
and
can
urate
diarrhea.
Starch
material
crystals,
plant
granules,
be mistaken
exam.
ova in a fecal
In parakeets
for parasite
and
a bacterial
to tested
diarrhea,
cockatiels,
non-responsive
drugs,
be checked
should
In large
for GiarcLia.
euthanize
outbreaks,
aviary
a severely
a wet-mount
of small
affected
and perform
bird
intestinal
In living
contents.
are
the feces
sometimes
birds,
yellow;
light
The wet-mount
be examined
should
brownish.
occasionally
immediately
a saline
under
diluent.
with
oil,
Acute
can cause
lead
enteritis,
poisoning
neurological
signs,
and melena.
WND
is a possibility
in the smuggled
bird.
X-ray
will
show very
in the crop,
radio-dense
prove ntricuius,
particles
and gizzard.
Sources
include
bird
weighted
toys,
grouting,
old
stained
and
The
don't
art,
paint.
glass
erythrocytes
usually
show stippling,
but a marked
in immature
increase
cells
is often
flora.

present.

exocrine
Pancreatic
deficiency
a
of diarrhea
had
one-year
history
of
Certain
adenocarcinoma.
types
associated
with
diarrhea.

seems
to be
was found
to
chronic
liver
?Alan

rare.
A mynah
have
pancreatic
can be
disease
Fudge,

which

D.V.M.

. . Feather
IME 92
Parasites
sell
of products
Retailers
to treat
feather
large
quantities
are
The sprays
often
The mite
ectoparasites.
pyrethrins.
protectors,
contain
the active
hung in cage,
paradichlorobenzene,
ingredient
in moth balls.
In actual
seem to work.
infestations,
they don't
use
Their
in prevention
of the unlikely
is unnecessary.
infestation.*.
are apparently
Mites
seen
rare.
I
have
cases
four
of feather
quite
lice
were
in the past
All
from
infected
aviaries.
year.
cockatiels,
a
dust
is
in
The
bird
is
paper
(5??)
placed
Carbaryl
bag.
placed
in the bag,
with
head
then
"shake
and bake".
out,
sticking
Repeat
in two weeks.
?

Alan

Fudge,

D.V.M.

. . In addition
IME 93
to a thorough
to certify
exam,
physical
the good health
of a recently
I
purchased
bird,
diagnostic
require
1.
tests:
culture
and sensitivity,
bacterial
2. fecal
parasite
and 4. diagnostic
blood
exam,
J. psittacosis
swab,
panel
(Veterinary
Reference
cost
can
be
The
but so is the
Lab),
considerable,
of many of the birds.
If the first
value
are
three
replacement
one
and
a
the
is
has
of
index
normal,
negative
panel
very
high
no
that
are
health
problems
reliability
pre-existing
present.
This
be the equivalent
would
to a soundness
thorough
screening
exam in a horse:
in writing
certification
that
is normal.
everything
?

Alan

Fudge,

D.V.M.

REGARDING IME 63,
I have had problems
offering
alone
to
and
finches.
Both
just
budgies
species
get
seems
to be helped
which
with
the addition
of a tiny
constipated,
amount of greens.
will
Finches
starve
to death
if they
literally
are not introduced
a little
Life
to Keet
at a time as Dr.
Cooper
suggested.
have
Breeders
of poor
results
however,
complained,
breeding
and abnormal
if small
were given
behavior
birds
both Keet
Life
and
in
On
the
the
water.
other
hand,
tetracycline
they have
reported
results
one or the
treatment
with
preventative
following
positive
IME
Keet

94
Life

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-an

in number
of birds
increase
and
increased
other:
fertility,
laying
in
health
better
number
of eggs,
condition,
general
improvement
of young.
and vigor
food
Breeders
increased
growth
efficiency,
in their
feed Keet
Life
aviaries
for a 1-2 week period
routinely
season.
of Keet
to the breeding
The dose
Life
each
year
prior
of
consumed
the
with
rain,
temperature,
may vary
type
humidity,
sources
or
available.
food
water
other
bird,
?

D.V.M.

Harrison,

Greg

.
in a pet bird's
WBC is often
correlated
95
Eosinophilia
is
in
This
true
cockatoos
with
infestation.
parasite
especially
which
A dog/
often
show on fecals.
harbor
which
tapeworms
rarely
a
often
of
which
cat dose
of Yomesan
will
produce
tapeworms,
myriad
is
of the eosinophils.
results
in disappearance
Eosinophilia
as well.
seen with
blood
also
often
problems,
parasite
IME

?

Walter

D.V.M.

Rosskopf,Jr.,

. . Adrenal
a septicemic
IME 96
may occur
insufficiency
during
or
as
be
of
chronic
the
result
disease
involvement)
may
(temporary
be
Treatment
short
from
disease
(which may
many
syndromes.
damage
of physiologic
the use
includes
term in acute
replacement
septicemia)
or by injection.
or supplemental
in the water
hormones
Water
adrenal
0.1 mg (1/4 - 1 tab/4
of Florinef
involves
the use
treatment
oz.),
in
and injectable
dexamethasone
2 mg (1/4 - 1 tab/4
Winstrol
oz.),
- 0.10
cc - 0.20
are
monitored
the water
Cases
oz.).
(2 mg/cc
cc/4
blood
and doses
titrated
antibiotics,
Appropriate
testing.
by serial
are
used
etc.
for
the
disease,
vitamins,
electrolytes,
inciting
concurrently.
?
D.V.M.
Walter
Jr.,
Rosskopf,
. . When, handling
blood
avian
97
of
cells
red
and
separation
centrifugation
to avoid
in the microhematocrit
artifacts
follows:
A typical
tubes).
example

for laboratory
analysis,
from the plasma
is necessary
heparinized
system
(using

IME

from same bird,
Sample
but refrig
Uncentrifuged
sent
in 24 hrs.
erated,

Crested
Sulfur
Centrifuged
to lab
sent
Blood
Cockatoo
discarded:
with red cell
portion

Potassium
Sodium
Glucose
Total

3-4
18.9t
127 ^
136
191 *
250
LDH 290 410 *
4.1t
Protein
3-5
?

IME
associated

98

. . Very low
with viremias

blood
cell
white
or overwhelming

Walter

counts
in
septicemias.
?

Walter

Jr.,

Rosskopf,

birds

may

Rosskopf,

D.V.M.

be
Jr.,

D.V.M.

************************

(Ed. note:
University

My apologies
for incorrectly

to

TO:

OR CALL:

Adina

(5l6)

Rae

J.E.

printing

IF A FRIEND OR COLLEAGUE IS

WRITE

Dr.

of Texas
Grimes
name as Jerry.)

INTERESTED IN JOINING A.A.V.

Freedman,

488-5183

(James)
his
first

P.

0.

Box

2991

East

, HAVE THEM

Northport,

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A&M

NY 11731

late