Laman utama A.A.V. Newsletter From the A.A.Z.V. Meeting

From the A.A.Z.V. Meeting

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Majalah:
A.A.V. Newsletter
DOI:
10.2307/25630335
Date:
December, 1981
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1

U.S.A.H.A. Report

Tahun:
1981
Bahasa:
english
File:
PDF, 284 KB
2

1982 Avian Meetings

Tahun:
1981
Bahasa:
english
File:
PDF, 273 KB
Association of Avian Veterinarians

From the A.A.Z.V. Meeting
Source: A.A.V. Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Dec., 1981), pp. 6-11
Published by: Association of Avian Veterinarians
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6

from

the

A.A.Z.V.

meeting.

The following
are summaries
of
medicine
kt the AAZV Annual
Meeting
Watch for the
Seattle,
Washington.
for complete
papers.
Proceedings

on avian
some papers
presented
in
on October
held
5t 1981
the
of
1981 AAZV
"availability

- AN ASSESSMENT
- Post Doctoral
V.M.D.
Fellow
Dein,
i$ Laboratory
and Cell
of Experimental
Hematology
in
and Ph.D.
Candidate
Biology,
of Pennsylvania.
University
Pathology,

AVIAN HEMATOLOGY
F.

Joshua

can be an important
Hematology
been part
of the avian
diagnostic
It has far greater
in pet
impetus
a problem
becomes
as there
is lack
and within
For example,
species.
in the reported
values
for
spread
macaws.
The abnormal
is so
range
is considered
the normal
range.
All
of the variables
we have not reached
that
a parrot
is no more like
blood

but has not
tool,
diagnostic
as it relates
to poultry.
regime
and zoo. birds,
but interpretation
between
of consistency
species
is a 70%
in the literature
there
and Gold
in Blue
heterophils
to wh; at
limited
in comparison

but
in mammalian
have
been minimized
blood,
blood.
in
with
avian
point
Obviously,
dealing
a chicken
a cow in normal
is like
than a cat

values.

In
are:

1.
2.
3.
In

developing

for

the

birds,

considerations

variation
Species
variation
Physiologic
Technical
variation
thinking
"How

wonder,

values

hematological

do

about
people

the
look

technical
at

avian

variation,
blood?"

Dr.
He

set

Dein
up

began

an

to

experiment

where he made multiple
smears
from a Mallard
duck and a Moluccan
cockatoo
the
for
Geometric
Data
[Smith Kline]
(using
Miniprep
by
in
smears
the
and
to
them
submitted
greater
themselves)
consistency
zoos,
schools,
veterinary
private
practitioners,
poultry
pathologists,
and private
labs
Of the readings
that were returned/
for,evaluation.
24 were considered
in the results
a variety
of responses
and showed
from 10% heterophils/90^
to
90% heterophils/lO#
lymphocytes,
lymphocytes.
sources
The possible
can be broken
of error
down intot
I.

II.
III.
in

Technique
A.
Sampling
B.
Smear Preparation
C.
Procedure
Staining
D.
Procedure
Counting
1.
Area of Slide
Counted
2.
Numbers
of Cells
Counted
Random Error
Interpretation

are
The following
differential
counts:
1.

The cover
slip
David
Graham's
and
Newsletter
Jain & Carroll]

suggestions
method
of
WBC Count
described
p. 26-27.)

for

reducing

the

amount

of

error

to in
(as referred
preparation
in
the
AAV
procedure
September
in Veterinary
Hematology
[Schalm,
is superior
for preserving

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-7

2.

Keep

in mind

areas

of

a

the

that

cells

certain
so

smear,

where

tend

you

take

to

clump

your

count

in

certain
can

make

in what you see.
difference
and
For example,
monocytes
tend to "be at the feathered
of
the
smear;
granlocytes
edge
The technique
in the center.
"best viewing
for
lymphocytes
seems to be:
over
2 fields,
down 2 fields.
go up 2 fields,
of field.)
(Use both edges

^

|

|

&^

3.

The total
number of cells
in a differential
counted
makes
a difference
in the margin
of error.
Obviously,
counting
as many as 1600
cells
makes a more accurate
but is
count,
It has been
that
is
400
very time-consuming.
suggested
the ideal.
Human labs
count at least
200.

4.

Another
possibility
and count
all
the
population.

5-

The

6.

to use a very
in that
drop,

small
drop of blood
the complete
getting

is to be consistent,
main thing
and use
the same
over
over.
and
technique
- Lucas1
The "bible"
of Avian
Atlas
is very
Hematology
in fact may be too definitive.
You may
definitive,
come across
a cell
that you just
can't
occasionally more
the
the more confused
you look at it,
classify
you
as a "Skipocyte"
Refer
to this
it
get.
just
forget
and not count
it at all.
are a significant
If there
number of the questionable
not be ignored,
cells,
they should
as a separate
but counted
until
population
they can be
identified.
properly
There may also
be some "opinion"
errors
vs.
heterophils
for
There
no
be
truth
to
the
eosinophils,
may
example.
that heterophils
have rod shaped
theory
always
granules
and eosinophils
have
round granules.
The more populous
would probably
tend to be heterophils,
no matter
what
the

7.

is
cells

granules

look

like.

are useless
Differentials
You need
also
by themselves.
to know the total
WBC count.
Dr. Dein
with the
agrees
Graham in the
Unopette
System as discussed,
by David
AAV Newsletter.
September
It is obvious
that
the field
of avian
needs
hematology
standardized
methods
of preparation
and identification.
We need
to develop
so we can
further
standards
of normal
to
understand
the
abnormal.
begin

POX IN PSITTACINE BIRDS
Scott

E.

McDonald,

D.V.M.

-

Zoological
Chicago
IL
Brookfield,

Park

a variety
to produce
of symptoms,
Avian
pox appears
depending
area
is
on the species:
the eye
in canaries,
affected;
primarily
can be more
but these
the eyes,
also
around
have lesions
pigeons
vent.
Pox is commonly
the feet,
and
legs
widespread,
invading
on the limbs
of raptors,
which are often
secondarily
present

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8

contaminated

bacteria.

with

Dr. McDonald
in a giro up of
was involved
with a pox outbreak
to
were
some
of
the
birds
confined
of
birds.
psittacine
Symptoms
what is referred
and
to as
unilateral
blepharitis
"dry pox":
which
on the eyelid
small
ulcerations
conjunctivitis,
margins
nares
of the
scabbed
and
commisures
the
small
at
over,
dry papules
beak.
necrotic
If the disease
advanced
to include
superficial
in the trachea,
in the oral
and lesions
esophagus
cavity,
plaques
it was considered
the normal
"wet pox".
With blue-fronted
amazons,
and
black
became
mucous
to
white
colored
membranes
changed
grayish
denuded
of papillae.
Treatment
and. Gentocin
with Gentocin
ophthalmic
injections
on the course
of the
to have any effect
ointment
did not appear
disease.
Birds
to the dry form v
whose, symptoms were limited
where
of the mouth-were
lesions
the survival
survived;
involved,
was much less.
rate
Of those
who had secondary
birds
pneumonia
and air
succumbed.
saculitis,
100$

NORMALAND ABNORMALBACTERIAL FLORA IN THE PHARYNXOF
PSITTACINE BIRDS AS IT RELATES TO RESPIRATORY DISEASE
Scott

E.

McDonald,

D.V.M.

-

Park

Chicago
Zoological
IL
Brookfield,

seem to be the most common problem
Since
respiratorydiseases
in psittacine
and the most complex
iri terms of causative
birds,
a study
Dr. McDonald
undertook
which
to determine
bacterial
agent,
He
in the disease^
may or may not be significant
process.
agents
are present
of course,
in normal
that
bacteria
birds,
found,
healthy
but the kinds,
and more significantly
the numbers
of these
present,
correlate
with
symptoms of diseases.
One
for

upper

slit]
routinely

hundred
respiratory

twenty-five

(not to be
incubated

bacterial

normal

healthy

populations

birds
from

confused
with the cloaca).
for 24-48
in selected
hours

were
the

cultured
choana

[pharangeal

were
The cultures
media
including

mycoplasma.

Gram positives
accounted
for 76% of the bacteria
isolated
from healthy
were either
of
these
epider
birds;
Staphylococcus
80$
or alpha
midis
more
were found
These
three
times
Streptococcus.
than any other
from healthy
birds.
The
isolate
frequently
were Gram negative.
of
E.
all
bacteria
coli
24$
present
remaining
was isolated
in 9% of the healthy
in 8 %
Pseudomonas
sp.
birds;
and Klebsiella
in 3%.
Of the gram negatives
found
in healthy
sp.
or rare
in
Out of 25 love
amounts.
birds
birds,
90% grew
only light
in other
found
which was seldom
cultured,
sp.,
17 had Lactobacillus
species.

Dr. McDonald
cultured
also
with
birds
diseases,
forty
respiratory
in 83$,
found Gram negative
be the predominant
to
bacteria
E.
and to occur
in larger
numbers:
Pastuerella,
coli,
organism
was not found
Pseudomonas.
in healthy
birds.
Pastuerella
Klebsiella,
and

one should
in mind that
the use
cultures,
In;taking
keep
the normal
antibiotics
cultures
alters
flora
and that
bacterial
also
contain
transient
that
of
other
bacteria
may
populations
on environmental
factors.
may not become
significant,
depending
or pox may predispose
the bird
invasion.
to bacterial
stress,

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of
or

may

Virus,
Studies

~9~

done
the

in

chickens

resistance

that

indicate
against

of

administration

secondary

Vitamin

A increases

infection.

bacterial

In a related
ten healthy
love
and ten healthy
budgies
study,
were anesthetized,
birds
swabs
incised
and Calgi
inserted
directly
into the intraorbital
of these
had no
for cultures.
Sixteen
sinus
numbers
of bacteria,
small
four showing
with the remaining
growth,
method may minimize
While
this
Staph
epidermidis.
primarily
it
and stress
renders
the trauma
environmental
contamination,
impractical.

EXTERNAL SKELETAL FIXATION USING A MODIFIED THROUGHAND THROUGH
- EHMER
TECHNIQUE

KIRSCHNER

William

-

"THE BOSTON TECHNIQUE"

Director
Boston

Satterfield,D.V.M.

a further
adaptation
for
avian
orthopedic
technique
tember AAV Newsletter,
IME 79).
I use

of the
problems

of Bio-Medicine
Zoological
Society
modified
Kirschner
in
(as described

splint
the Sep

and through
With the through
the transfixing
(T & T),
splint
are passed
bone
the
the
and
pins
percutaneously
through
through
skin
The
surface.
are
in
K-wire
small
(or
opposite
pins
species)
to
each
other
and
at
to
bone
the
in
placed
parallel
right
angles
both the proximal
and distal
fragments.
use the Hexcelite^
I also
in place
of the connecting
rods
to
the pins
and hold
stabilize
the bone fragments
in alignment.
It
on one side
is first
to the ends of the pins
of the limb;
applied
and the casting
is re-verified
anatomical
material
positioning
to the opposite
side.
applied

Care

be

should

to

taken

that:

insure

1.
2.
3-

on the pins
Excessive
is removed.
length
are enclosed
The ends of the pins
in the casting
material.
The casting
does not contact
material
the skin where
it

4.

There

5?

could

cause

pressure

is sufficient
for rigid
pins
are no sharp
There
has

hardened.

necrosis.

to the ends of the
material
applied
fixation
three
to four layers).
(generally
on the casting
after
material
it
edges

A light
and protective
around
the limb and cast
bandage
padding
to prevent
is necessary
material
trauma
to the adjacent
body sur
to prevent
with the apparatus
faces,
tampering
by the patient
on the ends of the pins.
and to retain
the casting
material

CASE REPORT: PARTIAL HYSTERECTOMYAS A MEANS OF INHIBITION
OF OVULATION IN THE DOMESTIC COCKATIEL
Greg

was

A single
presented

J.

Harrison,

D.V.M.

pet 19 month old,
with the complaint

-

Avian

Lake

Practitioner

Worth,

normal-colored
of feather

FL

female
cockatiel
and
picking
laying

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eggs.

-10

She had been
which
is not
time,

three

she

was

weeks
to
starting

without
the presence
laying
uncommon in this
domestically
.02

given

cc

testosterone

of

a nest
box
bred species.

or

subcutaneously.

a male,
At this
However,

another
she returned
after
later,
egg and
laying
her
feathers
pick
again.
with other
was scheduled.
A hysterectomy
From our experience
we did not feel
to
of the bird
it was in the best
interest
birds,
as well
as the uterus.
A consultation
try to remove the ovaries
Wildlife
with Dr. George
at Patuxent
Gee,
reproductive
physiologist
Research
the uterus
of the bird
revealed
that
Center,
produces
hormones
to stimulate
and by removing
ovulation
only the uterus,
be stopped.
would
ovulation
.02 Rompun,
The bird was anesthetized
and
.02 cc Ketamine
with
on
midline
A
and
Halothane.
maintained
prepped,
1%
surgically
was made and the left
sac
incision
transversed.
lateral
air
abdominal
In approaching
the uterus,
instrument
(Ellman
my electro-surgical
was at hand,
the needle
but I primarily
used
90 FFPF)
Surgitron
as a blunt
the uterus
dissection,
away from the fallopian
teasing
was removed
down to
with occasional
The
uterus
tubes,
caughtery.
the portion
where
it attaches-to
to
the
the cloaca,
distal
just
a
bulbous
oviduct
the
and
of
uterus,
portion
leaving
swelling,
vagina
was
A small
amount of surgical
intact.
Ellman)
glue
(Cyanodent
on the stub.
placed
some feather
with
again
to cycle.
probably
trying
at this
.02 cc was given
- Tuco Div.
of Upjohn)
(LS 50
for 7 days.)
of water
quart
time the owner informed
at which
later,
her
and was no
feathers,
picking.at
and objects
in a sexual
display.

the bird was presented
A month later,
It was felt
the ovary was
that
picking.
of testosterone,
A subcutaneous
injection
as well
as lincomycin-spectinomycin
time,
for feather
folliculitis.
per
(1/4 tsp.
I saw the bird nine
days
me that the bird was no longer
up" to people
longer
"backing
RESEARCH

REPORT^

of Auburn
an AAZV business
Dr. James Milton
meeting,
During
Dr.
some
the
he
of
and
his
colleague,
reported
findings
University
levels
come up with regarding
blood
have
antibiotic
Carl
Clark
of
and snakes.
work is a result
of birds
in certain
Their
species
the
to
AAZV
and
distributed
donated
the
funds
Foundation
by
Bay
by
AAZV Research
Committee.
was invested
in the sophisticated
Over $100,000
equipment
number
of
for
assays.
any
necessary
complete
Among other
analytical
of
levels
and
blood
studied
chloramphenicol
gentamycin
they
things,
be
will
in eighteen
of birds.
Their
complete
species
findings
of
Research.
in
Journal
the
American
published
Veterinary
In the meantime,
practitioner:

here

Chloramphenicol,
produced
exceedingly
inconsistent.
Up to
more
no
than
lasting

are

some

items

of

interest

to

the

administered
by crop tube at daily
blood
levels
irratic
which were
poor
200 mg/kg was given
to pigeons
with
one hour.

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avian
known
and
blood

doses,
levels

-11

Their
studies
cannot
injections
are not adequate

indicate
that generalizations
to species,
be made from species
For example:
in all
birds.

regarding
as blood

IM
levels

CHLORAMPHENICOL
ADMINISTERED IM
Dose
Species

Time

Maintained

5?

cHSSS;Ducks'

100-200

Pigeons

Parakeets
macaws

Conures,

Level

Blood

Peacocks

3-4 hours
so fast,
(Eliminated
recommended)

mg/kg

50 mg/kg

12

hours

50 mg/kg

6

hours

50 mg/kg

24

hours

not

GENTAMYCINADMINISTERED IM
Raptors

10 mg/kg

Pigeons

40 mg/kg

12

hours

1 hour

<

in accepting
is interested
to test
for antibiotic
Dr. Clark
samples
in order
to add to their
levels
blood
at no charge
data.
He would
a phone
to the submission,
call
to verify
however,
prior
appreciate
the procedure.
Submission
information
should
include
species,
and time interval.
dose,
weight,
blood
heparinized
samples
for each bird
tested.
being
time intervals
following

three
Ideally,
be submitted
should
be drawn at specific
For

(1)
(2)
(3)

For

the

gentamycin,

1 hour
6 hours

12 hours

chloramphenicol

~TT]
(2)
(3)

2-4 hours
8 hours
12

hours

samples
after

.1 ml each
at least
The samples
should
administration.

taken

at:

administration.

analysis,

the

following

For best
the blood
preservation,
Dr.
to:
the
Carl
fastest
way
shipped
of Veterinary
Auburn
School
Medicine,
to submission
Call
826-4425
prior
(205)
Clark.
with Dr.

U.S.A.H.A.

be

should

of

samples

should

be

taken

at:

administration.
be frozen
should
and
samples
Clark,
Dept.,
Physiology
AL 36830.
Auburn,
University,
to make arrangements
directly

REPORT

of the A.A.V.
Chairman
David
Ligda,
in
attended
the U.S.A.H.A.
held
meeting
Of interest
. .
of Poultry
Several
subjects

is
to A.A.V.
(to which they
were brought

Legislative
St. Louis

in

Committee
October.

on Transmissible
the Committee
Diseases
.
. and Other Avian
just added)
Species.
to be discussed
within
up which may need

A.A.V.

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